10-W RF Power GaN HEMT

Wolfspeed’s CGH40010 is an unmatched, gallium-nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). The CGH40010, operating from a 28-volt rail, offers a general-purpose, broadband solution to a variety of RF and microwave applications. GaN HEMTs offer high efficiency, high gain and wide bandwidth capabilities, making the CGH40010 ideal for linear and compressed amplifier circuits. The transistor is available in both screw-down, flange and solder-down pill packages.

Operating Voltage 28 V
Peak Output Power 10 W
Frequency DC - 6.0 GHz
Package Type Flange/Pill
Small Signal Gain 16 dB @ 2.0 GHz
14 dB @ 4.0 GHz
Typical Power (PSAT) 13 W
Efficiency 65 % @ PSAT


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by Jorge Moreno Rubio, Jie Fang, R. Quaglia, V. Camarchia, M. Pirola, S. Donati Guerrieri, G. Ghione

The design, implementation and characterization of a Doherty Power Amplifier (DPA) for 3.5 GHz WiMAX applications are discussed. The DPA has been implemented using a commercial GaN HEMT from Cree inc., following a class AB and C scheme for the main and peak module, respectively.
Design 01 Apr 2011
by Jorge Moreno Rubio; Jie Fang; Vittorio Camarchia; Roberto Quaglia; Marco Pirola; Giovanni Ghione

We discuss the design, realization and experimental characterization of a GaN-based hybrid Doherty power amplifier for wideband operation in the 3–3.6-GHz frequency range. The design adopts a novel, simple approach based on wideband compensator networks. Second-harmonic tuning is exploited for the main amplifier at the upper limit of the frequency band, thus improving gain equalization over the amplifier bandwidth.
Design 01 Jun 2012
by Caroline W. Waiyaki

Report for US Army Research Laboratory. A key component of microwave telecommunication systems is the power amplifier (PA). The design parameters of a communication system, such as link performance, power budget, and thermal design are typically driven by the power amplifier’s linearity, output power, and efficiency.
Design 01 Sep 2010
by Raymond S. Pengelly, William Pribble, Thomas Smith

This Simulation of power amplifiers (PAs) for modern wireless base station and small cell systems is an essential part of the design process. At a cell site, the PA consumes the bulk of the dc power, generates the most heat, and thus represents the greatest operational cost. Maximum PA efficiency is a necessity to manage these costs, which is a sizeable challenge in a PA that also must be highly linear to support the complex multilevel modulation types and wide bandwidths used for current and developing wireless transmission standards. Accurate simulation allows the PA designer to meet these challenges by exploring the available design options and then optimizing the circuit that is selected for the application.
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by Deniz Gezmiş Tas; Osman Ceylan; H. Bülent Yağcı

In this article, an RF power amplifier which has a crucial importance for RF transceivers is designed and implemented. The main aim of the design is making the power amplifier linear at the center frequency 1.8 GHz. Linearity was measured with two tone test and according to the result of the test, the Carrier-to-Intermodulation (C/I) ratio should have been above 30 dB and two fundamental carriers with the 5 MHz space should be at least 1.25 Watt. Also, efficiency was tried to be kept as high as possible.
Design 01 Sep 2012
by Ellie Cijvat, Kevin Tom, Mike Faulkner, and Henrik Sjöland

This paper describes the design, simulation and measurement of a GaN power amplifier suitable for envelope and phase signal combination.
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by William L. Pribble, Jim M Milligan, and Raymond S. Pengelly

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A class-E power amplifier based on a GaN HEMT cell has been designed and tested.
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by William L. Pribble, Jim M Milligan, and Raymond S. Pengelly

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by Bumjin Kim, D. Derickson, and C. Sun

A class B and a class F power amplifier are described using a GaN HEMT device.
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by Philip A. Godoy, SungWon Chung, Taylor W. Barton, David J. Perreault, and Joel L. Dawson

A 1.95-GHz asymmetric multilevel outphasing (AMO) transmitter with class-E GaN power amplifiers (PAs) and discrete supply modulators is presented.
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by Junghwan Son, Ildu Kim, Junghwan Moon, Juyeon Lee, Bummam Kim

An asymmetric Doherty Power Amplifier (ADPA) is introduced using a new output combining circuit for easy of implementation with a large matching tolerance. The proposed APDA has been implemented using GaN HEMT devices at 2.6 GHz for WiMAX signal with 5MHz bandwidth and 8.3 dB peak to average power ratio.
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by Moon, Junghwan Son, Juyeon Lee, Jungjoon Kim, Seunghoon Jee, Seungchan Kim, and Bumman Kim

A multimode/multiband envelope tracking (ET) transmitter consisting of a hybrid switching amplifier (HSA) and a broadband saturated power amplifier (PA) is developed across 1.3 to 2.7 GHz.
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by V. Carrubba, J. Lees, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker, S. C. Cripps

A novel, highly efficient and broadband RF power amplifier (PA) operating in “continuous class-F” mode has been realized for first time.
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by Raymond S. Pengelly, Simon M. Wood, James W. Milligan, Scott T. Sheppard, and William L. Pribble
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by Jangheon Kim, Junghwan Moon, Bumman Kim, and Raymond S. Pengelly

This article presents the design of the winning PA with PAE of 73.2% at 3.2GHz operating frequency, which is equivalent to the weighted PAE performance of 97.9% by students from Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH).
Article 01 Feb 2009
by Neal Tuffy; Lei Guan; Anding Zhu; Thomas J Brazil

This paper describes the design approach employed for achieving approximated continuous Class-F power amplifier (PA) modes over wide bandwidths. The importance of the nonlinear device capacitance for wave-shaping the continuous Class-F voltage and current waveforms is highlighted, thus reducing the device sensitivity to second and third harmonic impedance terminations.
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by Yong-Sub Lee, Mun-Woo Lee, Sang-Ho Kam, and Yoon-Ha Jeong

This paper reports a new double Doherty power amplifier (DDPA) with a flat efficiency range, which consists of two-stage amplifiers.
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by D. Kimball, J. Jeong, C. Hsia, P. Draxler, P. Asbeck, D. Choi, W. Pribble and R. Pengelly

Class E amplifiers offer significant advantages for high efficiency operation, although they have been largely limited to relatively low microwave frequencies and/or low output powers. GaN HFETs are well suited to Class E at high powers and high frequencies, inasmuch as their output capacitance is particularly low for a device with a given output power, and has little voltage dependence.
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Design 16 Jun 2008
by Michael Boers

Michael Boers, Ph.D. Student, Wins IEEE MTT-S Power Amplifier Competition, 85% PAE Achieved with Microwave Office and Cree, Inc. GaN HEMT.
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by Junghwan Moon; Seunghoon Jee; Jungjoon Kim; Jangheon Kim; Bumman Kim

Operational behaviors of the class-F and class-F amplifiers are investigated. For the half-sinusoidal voltage waveform of the class-F amplifier, the amplifier should be operated in the highly saturated region, in which the phase relation between the fundamental and second harmonic currents are out-of-phase. The class-F amplifier can operate at the less saturated region to form a half sinewave current waveform. Therefore, the class-F amplifier has a bifurcated current waveform from the hard saturated operation, but the class-F amplifier operates as a switch at the saturated region for a second harmonic tuned half-sine waveform.
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by J. A. García, B. Bedia, R. Merlín, P. Cabral and J. C. Pedro

An experimental procedure is proposed for accurately characterizing the Vdd-to-AM and Vdd-to-PM nonlinearities in a Class E power amplifier (PA). Based on GaN HEMT technology,...
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by Neal Tuffy, Anding Zhu, and Thomas J. Brazil

This work outlines a design approach used for achieving highly efficient power amplification over a wide bandwidth, given narrowband passive harmonic load-pull results at a single center frequency.
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by David Yu-Ting Wu, Slim Boumaiza

Research on digital predistortion and advanced transmitters utilizing nonlinear PAs have begun to mitigate the concerns about nonlinearity.
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by Danish Kalim and Renato Negra

This paper presents a concept to design a compact planar multiharmonic load transformation network (MHLTN) for the realisation of highly efficient dual-band power amplifiers (PAs). The topology was applied to implement a class-E PA using a GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) in a hybrid design for GSM1810 and LTE2655 operation.
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This paper presents a novel method by using resonators in both input and output matching networks to design a tri-band GaN HEMT power amplifier. Two parallel resonators in series as one frequency selection element are used for each operation frequency. By applying this frequency selection element in both input and output matching networks constructed with microstrip line, tri-band matching network is realized. With our proposed frequency selection element, we can use the conventional L-type structure to design matching network for three frequencies so that the design analysis procedure is easier. We also propose a new simplified output matching network by using bias line to match the output impedance to reduce the number of resonators. To demonstrate our method, we fabricate a tri-band power amplifier that can work at 1 GHz, 1.5 GHz, and 2.5 GHz concurrently. Experimental results show that the output power is 39.8 dBm, 40.8 dBm, and 39.2 dBm with 56.4%, 58.3%, and 43.4% power added efficiency (PAE) at 1 GHz, 1.5 GHz and 2.5 GHz, respectively.
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by Thomas M. Hone; Souheil Bensmida; Kevin A. Morris; Mark A. Beach; Joe P. McGeehan; Jonathan Lees; Johannes Benedikt; Paul J. Tasker

Mathematical analysis of Doherty amplifiers have assumed many simplifications. Most notably, the peaking amplifier does not contribute power into the load and the peaking stage has an observed impedance of infinity. This paper will show that these simplifications impair the performance of a single-input Doherty amplifier and that phase tuning for compensation is needed to improve the overall system performance.
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A Class F power amplifier (PA) at 2.5 GHz has been designed and fabricated. Test results show 15.7 dB gain with 75.75% power added efficiency (PAE ), at an input level of 25 dBm.
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A new technique for designing concurrent multiband biasing networks for multiband RF power amplifiers is presented. The proposed design technique can theoretically be applied for a large number of frequency bands. The biasing network (BN) is composed of a transmission line and high impedance quaterwave open stubs (QWOS) that are located at appropriate positions along the transmission line. Two tri-band BNs for 1.49 GHz, 2.15 GHz and 2.65 GHz frequencies were designed, fabricated and display very good performance with regard to the input impedance seen looking toward the BNs from the active devices, such as FETs, are approximately open for all three bands.
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by P. Suebsombut, O. Koch, S. Chalermwisutkul

A class-AB power amplifier was designed for an envelope tracking (ET) application. Class-AB amplifier is widely used in wireless communication systems due to the compromise between linearity and efficiency.
Design 01 May 2010
by S. Lin and A. E. Fathy

A 50 to 550 MHz wideband gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT power amplifier with over 43 dBm output power and 63% drain
efficiency has been successfully developed.
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by D. E. Root, J. Xu, J. Horn, M. Iwamoto, and G. Simpson

It is demonstrated that Xparameters measured versus load at the fundamental frequency predict well the independent effects of harmonic load tuning on a 10W GaN packaged transistor without having to independently control harmonic loads during characterization.
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In this paper, a digital predistorted inverse class-F GaN power amplifier with novel PAPR reduction technique, in
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by Junghwan Moon, Junghwan Son, Jungjoon Kim, Ildu Kim, Seunghoon Jee, Young Yun Woo, and Bumman Kim

A Doherty amplifier assisted by a supply modulator is presented using 2.14 GHz GaN HEMT saturated power amplifier (PA). A novel envelope shaping method is applied for high power-added efficiency (PAE) over a broad output power range.
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The emergence of increasing multifunctionality and high data rate advanced wireless standards, such as WiMAX and LTE-advanced, requires communication systems capable of operating at multiple frequencies simultaneously. This situation has led to scenarios where the radios with the ability to function at several distinct frequencies are required. Seamless transition from one existing standard (e.g., 3G) to upcoming standards (e.g., 4G) with backward compatibility is also a motivating factor for the deployment of multiband radio architectures.
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The effects of even-order nonlinear terms on ET transmitters are explored for the behavior model and digital predistortion technique.
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A general overview and practical design methods for supply-modulated transmitters are presented. Disadvantages of the conventional EER transmitter are discussed, such as wideband sensitivity, power leakage, and poor PAE.
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This paper presents an exhaustive description of a field programmable gate-array (FPGA) based set-up for envelope tracking and dynamic biasing of RF power amplifiers (PA). For testing purposes a GaN HEMT RF PA operating at 3.5 GHz was considered.
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This paper describes the design and fabrication of a highly efficient switching-mode Class-E Doherty power amplifier using gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) for S-band radar applications.
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by Kelvin Yuk, G.R. Branner and Claudia Wong

A method of determining the optimal harmonic terminations using accurate nonlinear computer models and load- and source-pull simulations is described.
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This paper describes a new three-stage Doherty power amplifier (DPA) with an adaptive driving amplifier inserted at the input of the carrier cell.
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by Troels S. Nielsen, Ulrik R. Madsen, Michael Dieudonné

A complete power amplifier design using new Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA) and X-parameter technologies. A high-power, pulsed Continuous Wave (CW) NVNA setup is presented and harmonic tuning capabilities of the measured X-parameter model is demonstrated using the same setup.
Design 01 Nov 2011
by Ildu Kim, Jangheon Kim, Junghwan Moon, Jungjoon Kim, and Bumman Kim

Demonstrating a highly efficient Hybrid Envelope Elimination and Restoration transmitter for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX applications using a highly efficient saturated Power Amplifier (PA). For the optimum H-EER operation, the PA has been designed to have a maximum PAE at the average Vds region by using 10 W (P3dB ) GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor.
Design 01 Jun 2009
by Moon, Seunghoon Jee, Jungjoon Kim, Junghwan Son, Seungchan Kim, Juyeon Lee, Seokhyeon Kim, and Bumman Kim

The practical operating conditions of class-F-1 amplifier are investigated by analyzing the current and voltage waveform shapings. In the experiment, the saturated amplifier is designed and implemented using Cree GaN HEMT CGH40010 at 2.655 GHz. It provides a power-added efficiency of 73.9% at saturated output power of 41 dBm.
Design 01 Oct 2011
by Junghwan Moon; Jungjoon Kim; Bumman Kim

This paper presents the operation principle of Class-J power amplifiers (PAs) with linear and nonlinear output capacitors (Cout s). The efficiency of a Class-J amplifier is enhanced by the nonlinear capacitance because of the harmonic generation from the nonlinear Cout , especially the second-harmonic voltage component.
Design 04 Nov 2010
by M. Akmal, V. Carrubba, J. Lees, S. Bensmida, J. Benedikt, K. Morris, M. Beach, J. McGeehan, P. J. Tasker

This paper demonstrates how the linearity performance of a 10W GaN HEMT can be dramatically improved by actively engineering the baseband impedance environment around the device.
Design 01 Jun 2011
by Raymond Quéré; Raphael Sommet; Philippe Bouysse; Tibault Reveyrand; Denis Barataud; Jean Pierre Teyssier; Jean Michel Nébus

In this paper Low Frequency (LF) parasitic effects are assessed through three kinds of measurements. It is shown that LF S-parameters measurements allow to extract the thermal impedance of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) and to put dispersive effects of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) into evidence. Large signal (RF pulsed and two tone intermodulation) confirm the impact of those parasitic effects on performances of Power Amplifiers.
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by Peter Wright, Jonathan Lees, Johannes Benedikt, Paul J. Tasker, and Steve C. Cripps

The design and implementation of a class-J mode RF power amplifier is described. The experimental results indicate the class-J mode’s potential in achieving high efficiency across extensive bandwidth, while maintaining predistortable levels of linearity.
Article 01 Dec 2009
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This paper presents a complete validation of the new behavioral model called the multiharmonic Volterra (MHV) model for designing wideband and highly efcient power ampliers with packaged transistors in computer-aided design (CAD) software. The MHV models of 10- and 100-W packaged GaN transistors have been extracted from time-domain load–pull measurements under continuous wave and pulsed modes, respectively.
Design 01 Jun 2012
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A new and simple Power Amplifier (PA) linearization method is proposed and demonstrated using a very high efficiency yet inherently nonlinear inverse class-F PA.
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Design 01 May 2011
by Seunghoon Jee; Junghwan Moon; Jungjoon Kim; Junghwan Son; Bumman Kim

The switching behavior of Class-E power amplifiers (PAs) is described. Although the zero voltage switching can be performed properly, the charging process at the switch-off transition cannot be abrupt and the waveform deviates from the ideal shape, degrading the efficiency. For the operation above maximum frequency, the charging process should be even faster but it cannot follow. Moreover, the discharging process is not sufficiently fast and further degrades the efficiency. The discharging process is assisted by the bifurcated current at saturation. The performance of the Class-E PA above the maximum frequency is enhanced by the nonlinear , which helps to shape the voltage waveform. The bifurcated current itself cannot generate enough of a second-harmonic voltage component to shape the required voltage waveform. The performance of the Class-E PA can be further improved by a second-harmonic tuning and a conjugate matched output load, leading to the saturated PA. Compared with the Class-E PA, the saturated amplifier delivers higher output power and efficiency. A highly efficient saturated amplifier is designed using a Cree GaN HEMT CGH40010 device at 3.5 GHz. It provides a drain efficiency of 75.8% at a saturated power of 40.2 dBm (10.5 W).
Design 01 Jan 2012
by Francesco Fornetti, Mark Beach; James G. Rathmell

GalliumNitride (GaN) solid-state devices are emerging as a replacement for vacuum electron devices (VED) in radar systems. These solid-state devices have significant thermal and trapping effects that, although not ruling out their use, do complicate it. This paper evaluates several commercial GaN devices, using pulse testing, under conditions typical of modern, high-frequency radar systems.
Design 01 Oct 2012
by M. Akmal, J. Lees, S. Bensmida, S. Woodington, V. Carrubba, S. Cripps, J. Benedikt, K. Morris, M. Beach, McGeehan and P. J. Tasker

This paper demonstrates the significant effect of baseband impedance termination on the linearity performance of
a 10W GaN HEMT device driven to deliver a peak envelope power of approximately 40dBm.
Design 01 Sep 2010
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Demonstrating a highly efficient Hybrid Envelope Elimination and Restoration transmitter for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX applications using a highly efficient saturated Power Amplifier (PA). For the optimum H-EER operation, the PA has been designed to have a maximum PAE at the average Vds region by using 10 W (P3dB ) GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor.
Design 01 Jun 2009
by Jialin Cai; Thomas J. Brazil

As a kind of superset of S-parameters, X-parameters are becoming increasingly popular in non-linear device simulation and measurement. Due to their good accuracy and convenient extraction procedures, X-parameter-based transistor device models have so far been mainly used in power amplifiers design. They have been limited to this kind of design up to now because the X-parameter models extracted are only suitable for fundamental frequency circuit design.
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